K. Anders Ericsson
Dr. Ericsson was a Conradi Eminent Scholar and Professor of Psychology at Florida State University. A Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. As the leading expert on performance, Anders Ericsson was the author of Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise (with Robert Pool)—a guide to mastery and excellence at work, school, and sport that condenses three decades of path-clearing research into a new way to think about practice, resilience, dedication and achievement.
Ericsson studied expert performance in domains as disparate as chess, nursing, law enforcement, ballet, aviation, computer programming, firefighting, and beyond. The complex cognitive mechanisms and physiological adaptations necessary for true excellence are all developed through Ericsson’s discovery of dedicated, purposeful practice.
He was internationally renowned for his work on deliberate practice and expertise, which is best known via the popular idea of the "10,000 hour rule." Prof. Ericsson inspired us to apply his ideas to police training, and was excited by the prospect that his research could help save lives and improve police-community trust. We pledge to honor Prof. Ericsson's memory by redoubling our efforts to apply his wisdom to the current challenges of police reform.
Dep. Chief (ret.)
Senior Executive Expert
Chris Bolton serves with Polis as senior executive expert on public safety reform and public safety data analytics. Chris recently retired as a deputy chief from the Oakland (CA) Police Department after twenty-three years of service. Some of his various progressive leadership assignments included department chief of staff, department inspector general, internal affairs
division commander, area captain, and special resource section lieutenant.
Deputy Chief Bolton earned a B.A. in Criminal Justice and is a Military Police Corps veteran of the United States Army and California Army National Guard. Chris has dedicated his career to advancing a vision of policing that exemplifies professionalism, transparency in communication, community collaboration, and the responsible use of risk management data to compliment crime reduction strategies and organizational leadership. Chris has collaborated with academic partners and
others to help institute departmental risk management processes. This process collects, assesses, and utilizes detention and arrest data to examine and reduce racial disparities and use of force, increase crime reduction and public safety effectiveness, and better direct and manage the performance of departmental personnel and organizational goals.
Sgt. Kelly Kruger
Kelly Kruger is a nationally-recognized expert on effective police response to people with mental health needs. She has served with the San Francisco Police Department since 2001. She began her police career as a patrol officer before being assigned to the Psychiatric Liaison Unit. She has experience as a member of the Special Victims Unit and the Juvenile and Special Investigations Division. Currently, Kelly is assigned to the Crisis Response and Hostage Negotiation teams at SFPD. Prior to her police career, Kelly worked in the mental health field. She is a Psychiatric Technician, State Board and licensed Vocational Nurse, and Certified Chemical Dependency Nurse.
As a member of the Psychiatric Liaison Unit, Kelly was responsible for conducting psychiatric interviews and effectively handling conflict resolution in and around the San Francisco Bay Area. She created and maintained policy on mental health issues, including implementing new programs, conducting presentations at district stations, and training personnel. Kelly’s work in the Special Victims Unit included case management to make appropriate referrals, address mental health issues, and handle follow-up needs.
Kelly was also a member of the Mobile Crisis Treatment Team in San Francisco, where she provided early intervention services in the field to prevent volatile situations from escalating to critical crisis points.
Kelly was featured in VICE Magazine’s article I Rode Along with the San Francisco Police Department's Only Mental Health Liaison in 2015.
James Schwitters (Brigadier General, U.S. Army, Ret.)
James Schwitters retired as the Commanding General of Fort Jackson, South Carolina, the Army’s largest Initial Entry Training installation, after 33 years of Army service. After six years of enlisted service as a communicator, he served as an infantry Soldier in a variety of command and staff assignments in both operational and training units.
Significant assignments included commanding the United State’s highest priority and most capable operational military unit in support of the Nation’s most sensitive requirements. Previously, Schwitters led the personnel selection and training for an 800-person organization involved in no-fail military operations. In Iraq, he commanded initial efforts to rebuild the Iraqi Armed Forces following their disbandment.
As Commander of Fort Jackson from 2005 to 2008, including serving as proponent for Basic Combat Training and the Drill Sergeant Program, Schwitters focused on developing new training philosophies to improve the rigor and relevance of initial entry training and the preparation of their training leaders.
Since retiring from the Army in 2008, Schwitters has served as a performer and consultant with several projects involving Outcomes Based Training and Education with the Army Research Institute, U.S. Military Academy and the Asymmetric Warfare Group. Most recently, he has served as a performer under DARPA’s Strategic Social Interaction Module project.
Seth Stoughton is a law professor at the University of South Carolina, where he studies the regulation of policing. His research focuses on police training and procedure, the use of force, and police/community relations. Seth is a Rule of Law Collaborative faculty associate, serves on the Civilian Advisory Council for the Columbia, SC, Police Department, and regularly provides training on police issues to law enforcement agencies, judges, and attorneys. Before joining the faculty at the University of South Carolina, Seth had a two-year teaching fellowship at Harvard Law School.
Prior to his academic career, Seth served as an officer with the Tallahassee Police Department for five years. Seth was a founding member of, and served his final two years on, the agency’s Special Response Team, a specialized unit that received advanced training in crowd control and riot response operations.
Seth earned his J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law, where he was an Articles Editor on the Virginia Law Review, an Elsie Hughes Cabell Scholar, and the recipient of the Thomas Marshall Miller Prize. He holds a B.A. in English from Florida State University.